Men suffering from obstructive sperm release due to the congenial absence of the vas deferens or non- obstructive azoospermia can now undergo surgical sperm revival. This treatment can be opt by men who wish to father a child after vasectomy. This medical problem is difficult to detect as the men do ejaculate seminal fluid but the fluid does not contain sperm in it. Generally, there are five different treatments that help the doctors collect the sperm surgically:

  • Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (PESA)

  • Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (MESA)

  • Testicular Sperm Aspiration (TESA)

  • Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE) – single or multi-site

  • Microscope-Assisted Testicular Sperm Extraction (MicroTESE)